Главная / Страны / Марокко / секретные разведданные

 секретные разведданные

Вернуться на описание страны
Представляем Вам самое полное описание страны на основе данных, полученных от различных разведслужб всего мира.

Выбирайте интересующий Вас раздел:
ГеографияСредства связи
Гос. структурыВооруженные силы
Экономика Внешняя политика

Morocco's long struggle for independence from France ended in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier was turned over to the new country that same year. Morocco virtually annexed Western Sahara during the late 1970s, but final resolution on the status of the territory remains unresolved. Gradual political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997. Parliamentary elections were held for the second time in September 2002 and municipal elections were held in September 2003.

Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

  • total: 446,550 sq km
  • land: 446,300 sq km
  • water: 250 sq km

    Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

    Land boundaries:
  • total: 2,017.9 km
  • border countries: Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km,
    Spain (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Spain (Melilla) 9.6 km

    Coastline: 1,835 km

    Maritime claims:
  • territorial sea: 12 nm
  • continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  • contiguous zone: 24 nm
  • exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

    Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

    Terrain: northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains

    Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m
    highest point: Jbel Toubkal 4,165 m

    Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt

    Land use:
  • arable land: 19.61%
  • permanent crops: 2.17%
  • other: 78.22% (2001)

    Irrigated land: 12,910 sq km (1998 est.)

    Natural hazards: northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts

    Environment - current issues: land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters

    Environment - international agreements:
  • party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
  • signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

    Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

    32,209,101 (July 2004 est.)

    Age structure:
  • 0-14 years: 32.6% (male 5,355,388; female 5,156,762)
  • 15-64 years: 62.5% (male 10,013,466; female 10,112,060)
  • 65 years and over: 4.9% (male 692,465; female 878,960) (2004 est.)

    Median age:
  • total: 23.3 years
  • male: 22.8 years
  • female: 23.8 years (2004 est.)

    Population growth rate: 1.61% (2004 est.)

    Birth rate: 22.79 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

    Death rate: 5.71 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)

    Net migration rate: -0.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

    Sex ratio:
  • at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  • 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  • total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

    Infant mortality rate:
  • total: 43.25 deaths/1,000 live births
  • female: 39.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  • male: 47.09 deaths/1,000 live births

    Life expectancy at birth:
  • total population: 70.35 years
  • male: 68.06 years
  • female: 72.74 years (2004 est.)

    Total fertility rate: 2.81 children born/woman (2004 est.)

    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2001 est.)

    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 13,000 (2001 est.)

    HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

  • noun: Moroccan(s)
  • adjective: Moroccan

    Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%

    Religions: Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%

    Languages: Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy

  • definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  • total population: 51.7%
  • male: 64.1%
  • female: 39.4% (2003 est.)

    Country name:
  • conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
  • conventional short form: Morocco
  • local short form: Al Maghrib
  • local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah

    Government type: constitutional monarchy

    Capital: Rabat

    Administrative divisions: 37 provinces and 2 wilayas*; Agadir, Al Hoceima, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Sraghna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Fes, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech, Meknes, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit; three additional provinces of Ad Dakhla (Oued Eddahab), Boujdour, and Es Smara as well as parts of Tan-Tan and Laayoune fall within Moroccan-claimed Western Sahara
  • note: as part of a 1997 decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature 16 new regions (provided below) were created although full details and scope of the reorganization are
  • limited: Casablanca, Chaouia-Ourdigha, Doukkala-Abda, Fes-Boulmane, Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen, Guelmim-Es Smara, Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz, Meknes-Tafilalet, Oriental, Oued Eddahab-Lagouira, Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer, Souss-Massa-Draa, Tadla-Azilal, Tangier-Tetouan, Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate

    Independence: 2 March 1956 (from France)
    National holiday: Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)

    Constitution: 10 March 1972, revised 4 September 1992, amended (to create bicameral legislature) September 1996

    Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court

    Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (as of January 2003)

    Executive branch:
  • chief of state: King MOHAMED VI (since 30 July 1999)
  • head of government: Prime Minister Driss JETTOU (since 9 October 2002)
  • cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
  • elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch following legislative elections

    Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Chamber of Counselors (270 seats; members elected indirectly by local councils, professional organizations, and labor syndicates for nine-year terms; one-third of the members are renewed every three years) and a lower house or Chamber of Representatives (325 seats; 295 by multi-seat constituencies and 30 from national lists of women; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)
  • elections: Chamber of Counselors - last held 6 October 2003 (next to be held NA 2006); Chamber of Representatives - last held 27 September 2002 (next to be held NA 2007)
  • election results: Chamber of Counselors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RNI 42, MDS 33, UC 28, MP 27, PND 21, PI 21, USFP 16, MNP 15, PA 13, FFD 12, other 42; Chamber of
    Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - USFP 50, PI 48, PJD 42, RNI 41, MP 27, MNP 18, UC 16, PND 12, PPS 11, UD 10, other 50

    Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed on the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the monarch)

    Political parties and leaders: Action Party or PA [Muhammad EL IDRISSI]; Alliance of Liberties or ADL [Ali BELHAJ]; Annahj Addimocrati or Annahj [Abdellah EL HARIF]; Avant Garde Social Democratic Party or PADS [Ahmed BENJELLOUN]; Citizen Forces or FC [Abderrahman LAHJOUJI]; Citizen's Initiatives for Development [Mohamed BENHAMOU]; Constitutional Union or UC [Mohamed ABIED (interim)]; Democratic and Independence Party or PDI [Abdelwahed MAACH]; Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Aissa OUARDIGHI]; Democratic Union or UD [Bouazza IKKEN]; Environment and Development Party or PED [Ahmed EL ALAMI]; Front of Democratic Forces or FFD [Thami EL KHYARI]; Istiqlal Party (Independence Party) or PI [Abbas El FASSI]; Justice and Development Party or PJD [Saad Eddine OTHMANI]; Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohamed ZIANE]; National Democratic Party or PND [Abdallah KADIRI]; National Ittihadi Congress Party or CNI [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]; National Popular Movement or MNP [Mahjoubi AHERDANE]; National Rally of Independents or RNI [Ahmed OSMAN]; National Union of Popular Forces or UNFP [Abdellah IBRAHIM]; Parti Al Ahd or Al Ahd [Najib EL OUAZZANI, chairman]; Party of Progress and Socialism or PPS [Ismail ALAOUI]; Party of Renewal and Equity or PRE [Chakir ACHABAR]; Party of the Unified Socialist Left or GSU [Mohamed Ben Said AIT IDDER]; Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]; Reform and Development Party or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOUHEN]; Social Center Party or PSC [Lahcen MADIH]; Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Mohammed El-YAZGHI]

    Political pressure groups and leaders: Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]; General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]; Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]; National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]; Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK]

    International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAS, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO

    Diplomatic representation in the US:
  • chief of mission: Ambassador Aziz MEKOUAR
  • consulate(s) general: New York
  • FAX: [1] (202) 265-0161
  • telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979 through 7982
  • chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

    Diplomatic representation from the US:
  • chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas T. RILEY
  • embassy: 2 Avenue de Mohamed El Fassi, Rabat
  • mailing address: PSC 74, Box 021, APO AE 09718
  • telephone: [212] (37) 76 22 65
  • FAX: [212] (37) 76 56 61
  • consulate(s) general: Casablanca

    Flag description: red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Sulayman's (Solomon's) seal in the center of the flag; red and green are traditional colors in Arab flags, although the use of red is more commonly associated with the Arab states of the Persian gulf; design dates to 1912

    Economy - overview:
    Morocco faces the problems typical of developing countries - restraining government spending, reducing constraints on private activity and foreign trade, and achieving sustainable economic growth. Despite structural adjustment programs supported by the IMF, the World Bank, and the Paris Club, the dirham is only fully convertible for current account transactions. Reforms of the financial sector are being contemplated. Droughts depressed activity in the key agricultural sector and contributed to a stagnant economy in 2002. Morocco reported large foreign exchange inflows from the sale of a mobile telephone license, and partial privatization of the state-owned telecommunications company and the state tobacco company. Favorable rainfall in 2003 led to a growth of 6%. Formidable long-term challenges include: preparing the economy for freer trade with the EU and US, improving education, and attracting foreign investment to boost living standards and job prospects for Morocco's youth.

    GDP: purchasing power parity - $128.3 billion (2003 est.)

    GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2003 est.)

    GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,000 (2003 est.)

    GDP - composition by sector:
  • agriculture: 22.9%
  • industry: 35.5%
  • services: 41.5% (2003 est.)

    Investment (gross fixed): 21.7% of GDP (2003)

    Population below poverty line: 19% (1999 est.)

    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  • lowest 10%: 2.6%
  • highest 10%: 30.9% (1998-99)

    Distribution of family income - Gini index: 39.5 (1998-99)

    Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.2% (2003 est.)

    Labor force: 10.84 million (2003)

    Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry 15%, services 45% (2003 est.)

    Unemployment rate: 19% (2003 est.)

    Budget: revenues: $13.8 billion
    expenditures: $14 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.1 billion (2004 est.)

    Public debt: 76.2% of GDP (2003)

    Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, citrus, wine, vegetables, olives; livestock

    Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism

    Industrial production growth rate: NA

    Electricity - production: 13.35 billion kWh (2001)

    Electricity - consumption: 14.61 billion kWh (2001)

    Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001)

    Electricity - imports: 2.2 billion kWh (2001)

    Oil - production: 400 bbl/day (2001 est.)

    Oil - consumption: 167,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

    Oil - exports: NA (2001)

    Oil - imports: NA (2001)

    Oil - proved reserves: 900,000 bbl (1 January 2002)

    Natural gas - production: 50 million cu m (2001 est.)

    Natural gas - consumption: 50 million cu m (2001 est.)

    Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)

    Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)

    Natural gas - proved reserves: 665.4 million cu m (1 January 2002)

    Current account balance: $963 million (2003)

    Exports: $8.466 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

    Exports - commodities: clothing, fish, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers (including phosphates), petroleum products, fruits, vegetables

    Exports - partners: France 26.5%, Spain 16.7%, UK 7.2%, Germany 5.2%, Italy 5%, US 4% (2003)

    Imports: $12.75 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)

    Imports - commodities: crude petroleum, textile fabric, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas and electricity, transistors, plastics

    Imports - partners: France 20.6%, Spain 12.4%, Italy 7.1%, Germany 5.2%, Saudi Arabia 5%, Russia 4.9%, US 4.1% (2003)

    Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $14.08 billion (2003)

    Debt - external: $17.32 billion (2003 est.)

    Economic aid - recipient: $565.6 million (1995)

    Currency: Moroccan dirham (MAD)

    Currency code: MAD

    Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams per US dollar - 9.5744 (2003), 11.0206 (2002), 11.303 (2001), 10.6256 (2000), 9.8044 (1999)

    Fiscal year: calendar year

    Telephones - main lines in use:
    1,219,200 (2003)

    Telephones - mobile cellular: 7,332,800 (2003)

    Telephone system:
  • general assessment: modern system with all important capabilities; however, density is low with only 4.6 main lines available for each 100 persons
  • domestic: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; Internet available but expensive; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay
  • international: country code - 212; 7 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (1998)

    Radio broadcast stations: AM 27, FM 25, shortwave 6 (1998)

    Radios: 6.64 million (1997)

    Television broadcast stations: 35 (plus 66 repeaters) (1995)

    Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)

    Internet country code: .ma

    Internet hosts: 3,627 (2004)

    Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (2000)

    Internet users: 800,000 (2003)

  • total: 1,907 km
  • standard gauge: 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (1,003 km electrified) (2003)

  • total: 57,707 km
  • paved: 32,547 km (including 481 km of expressways)
  • unpaved: 25,160 km (2000)

    Pipelines: gas 695 km; oil 285 km (2004)

    Ports and harbors: Agadir, El Jadida, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Rabat, Safi, Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla

    Merchant marine:
  • total: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 236,131 GRT/252,367 DWT
  • by type: cargo 8, chemical tanker 7, container 7, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 5, roll on/roll off 5, short-sea/passenger 2
  • foreign-owned: France 1, Germany 2, Greece 1, Hong Kong 1, Netherlands 2, Norway 2, United Kingdom 1 (2003 est.)

    Airports: 64 (2003 est.)

    Airports - with paved runways:
  • total: 25
  • over 3,047 m: 11
  • 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
  • 914 to 1,523 m: 1
  • under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
  • 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8

    Airports - with unpaved runways:
  • total: 38
  • 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
  • 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
  • under 914 m: 11 (2004 est.)
  • 914 to 1,523 m: 15

    Heliports: 1 (2003 est.)

    Military branches: Royal Armed Forces:
    Army, Navy, Air Force

    Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 18 months (2004)

    Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 8,788,971 (2004 est.)

    Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 5,529,267 (2004 est.)

    Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 352,711 (2004 est.)

    Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2,297.2 million (2003)

    Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.8% (2003)

    Transnational Issues
    Disputes - international:
    claims and administers Western Sahara whose sovereignty remains unresolved - UN-administered cease-fire has remained in effect since September 1991, but attempts to hold a referendum have failed and parties thus far have rejected all brokered proposals; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; Morocco also rejected Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands in 2002 to set limits to undersea resource exploration and refugee interdiction, but agreed in 2003 to discuss a comprehensive maritime delimitation; Morocco serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa

    Illicit drugs: illicit producer of hashish; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe

  • Марокко
    Вернуться на описание страны